what is Refinery Sulfur, sulphur?

Refinery sulfur

Refinery Sulfur is a product of processing natural gas and refining oils. Sulfur is reached three main routes: mineral sulfur, recovery from purities, and refinery sulfur that it is been recovery from crude oil and natural gas. Refinery sulfur recovery from IRAN refineries reached all-time high sulfur is recovered during refining operations to reduce sulfur concentrations in refined products and fuel gases in refineries. Low concentrations of sulfur in fuel gases of refineries are necessary to meet emissions standards for process boilers, flue gases and heaters.

Iranian mining has received its place as the source of elemental sulfur. As you know “About half of world sulfur production will be used to produce phosphates fertilizers and other half will be used in some 30 chemically oriented industries".

Sulfur from refineries

Sulfur recovery in IRAN refineries is at an all-time high. In the future demand patterns for sulfur are expected to continue through the next decade. Removing sulfur from petroleum products is one of the most important processes in a refinery to produce fuels compliant with environmental regulations.

A major portion of the unrecovered sulfur winds up in the bottom-of-the-barrel fractions: asphalt, road oils, petroleum coke and residual fuel oils. Given demand patterns and the complexity of the Iran. These products constitute a small proportion of refinery output.

One of the reasons for increased refinery sulfur recovery at refineries in the coming years is the declining quality of the Iran crude slate. Based on expected changes in environmental legislation, sulfur recovery from crude oil charged to Iran refineries should be increase.

Sulfur content is expressed as weight percent of sulfur in oil ( 0.1 to 5.0%wt).There are standard methods that you can   measure sulfur content , same as ASTM D129, D1552, and D2622.the method they you choose depending on the sulfur level.

How we can have sulfur in refineries?

We can produce refinery sulfur same as reaction:

2H2S + O2 → 2S + 2H2O

2H2S + SO2 ←→3S + 2H2O + heat

Sulfur is an important component of fertilizer, but also has many other industrial uses.

The distillation process segregates sulfur species in higher concentrations into the higher-boiling fractions and distillation residua.

Refinery sulfur in Iran

Refinery sulfur is another valuable export product by Iranian. After separating liquid gas from natural gas, in the second part, they do separation carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, which is also called "sweetening gas." If the sulfur was so much in gas is high, it is called "sour gas." refinery sulfur has been produced from natural gas, it has bad odor and deadly breathing and make damage transmission pipelines. Therefore, sulfur must be separated from natural gas, call it "base sulfur" .This refinery sulfur is yellow powder.

Analyze refinery sulfur

You know that the analysis of refinery sulfur contains various information such as the purity of sulfur, moisture, ash, Hydrocarbon, purity, acidity. Of course it's clearance that the analyses of the products in different refineries are difference. That's have effect different for products, so you should be consider sulfur content before the purchase.

Use refinery sulfur

 The majority of the sulfur produced is used to make sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid has multiple uses in the production of chemicals. Sulfur used in:

 Petroleum products

 Other industrial applications same as metal mining

 Making chemicals for agriculture, mostly for fertilizers

 Many of products such as the production of rubber for car tires.

Used for the production of organic and inorganic chemicals.

Refinery sulfur price

The volatility sulfur market:

The sulfur market was highly volatile in 2017 and made surprise the market. The volatility began in October 2017 then continued in the last two months of the year, with a rapid climb in prices through October and November shifting quickly in to reverse in December.

For several weeks , the delivered price  exceeded US$220 per ton .Sulphur prices had not got near that level since February 2014, when they exceeded US$210 per ton for a few weeks, and we have to go back to 2011 to find a period when a US$210+ level was sustained for more than a month.

Refinery sulfur purchasing procedure:

1- Sending the inquiry by email for refinery sulfur

2- Receive the offer

3-Sending letter of intent (LOI)

4-Quary of customer BCL by the seller

5-Provid SCO from the buyer and send specification

6-confirm SCO and specification by buyer

7-Open L/C or submit B/G by buyer

8- Fulfillment of purchasing steps and delivery product to customer

9-Delivery cargo and selling D/O.

10-Cargo clearance and bureaucratic measures for financial process to pay contract price.

Specification refinery sulfur



Test Method

Purity on Dry Basis, wt.%

99.5 MIN


Ash Content, wt.%



Moisture, wt.%

<0.03% Max


Acid Content, wt.%



Bulk density kg/m3



Arsenic P.P.M









Cl as ClNa






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