asphalt binder

asphalt binder

asphalt binder 60/70

The notation “60/70” refers to the penetration grade of asphalt binder, indicating its viscosity or consistency at a specific temperature. In this case, it is commonly known as “60/70 penetration grade asphalt binder.” Here’s what the numbers signify:

Penetration Grade

The first number (60) in the notation represents the penetration value of the asphalt binder at 25 degrees Celsius (77 degrees Fahrenheit). Penetration is a measure of the asphalt’s hardness or softness. A lower penetration value indicates a harder asphalt, while a higher value indicates a softer asphalt.


The second number (70) denotes the temperature in degrees Celsius at which the penetration test is performed. In this case, the penetration test is conducted at 25 degrees Celsius.

So, for a 60/70 penetration grade asphalt binder:The penetration value at 25 degrees Celsius is 60.The penetration test is conducted at a temperature of 70 degrees Celsius.


60/70 asphalt binder is commonly used in various road construction applications, including the production of hot mix asphalt (HMA). It is a versatile grade suitable for a range of climatic conditions.


 When mixed with aggregates at elevated temperatures, 60/70 asphalt binder forms a durable and flexible asphalt concrete that can withstand the stresses imposed by traffic and environmental factors.

Common Use

 This grade is often chosen for road paving projects where a balance between hardness and flexibility is required.It’s important to note that asphalt binders come in various penetration grades, and the choice of grade depends on factors such as climate, traffic conditions, and engineering specifications for the intended application. Additionally, local or regional standards and specifications may influence the selection of a specific asphalt binder grade for construction projects.

Asphalt binder calcifications

Asphalt binders are classified into different grades based on their performance characteristics, and this classification system is known as Performance Graded (PG) asphalt binder. The PG grading system was developed to ensure that asphalt binders are selected based on their ability to perform well under specific climatic and traffic conditions. The PG system is widely used in the United States and many other countries. Here are the key components of the PG grading system:

PG Grading

PG asphalt binders are graded based on their high and low-temperature performance. The temperature range is indicated by two numbers, such as PG 64-22. The first number represents the high-temperature performance (in degrees Celsius) and the second number represents the low-temperature performance.

High-Temperature Performance (PG High):

The high-temperature performance is crucial for determining the resistance of the asphalt binder to rutting or deformation under hot weather conditions. A higher PG high number indicates better resistance to high-temperature deformation.

Low-Temperature Performance (PG Low)

The low-temperature performance is important for assessing the asphalt binder’s ability to resist cracking in cold weather. A lower PG low number indicates better low-temperature flexibility and crack resistance.

Climate and Application-Specific Grading

Different regions may have different climate and traffic conditions, so the PG grading system allows for the selection of asphalt binders that are specifically suited to those conditions. For example, a binder graded as PG 64-22 might be suitable for use in a region with hot summers and mild winters.

Aging Susceptibility:

The PG grading system also considers the susceptibility of asphalt binders to aging. Binders are tested to simulate the effects of long-term exposure to heat and air, ensuring that they will perform well over time.

Performance Grade Modifiers

Some asphalt binders may be modified with additives, such as polymers, to enhance certain performance characteristics. These modified binders may have additional letters added to their PG grade to reflect the modification. For example, a PG 64-22 modified with polymer may be designated as PG 64-22P.

Specification Compliance

Many transportation agencies and specifications require the use of specific PG grades for asphalt mixtures used in road construction. Contractors and producers must comply with these specifications to ensure the durability and performance of the asphalt pavement.

Asphalt binders, integral to road construction, exhibit variations in their composition, and these differences are encapsulated in different grades. These grades serve as indicators of various properties that play crucial roles in the performance of asphalt in diverse applications.

Penetration Values

The penetration value signifies the hardness or softness of the asphalt binder. Lower penetration values indicate a harder asphalt, while higher values denote a softer consistency. This property is essential for understanding how the asphalt will behave under different conditions and stresses.

Application Temperatures

Asphalt binders are graded based on the temperatures at which they are applied. Different grades are suitable for specific climates and environmental conditions. The selection of the right grade ensures optimal performance and longevity of the asphalt pavement.


Viscosity is a measure of the asphalt binder’s resistance to flow. It influences how well the binder adheres to aggregates during the mixing process. Proper viscosity is crucial for achieving the desired workability and durability of the asphalt mixture.


Ductility refers to the asphalt binder’s ability to deform without breaking. It is a measure of flexibility and is particularly important in areas where temperature variations can cause thermal expansion and contraction. A ductile binder is less prone to cracking.

Performance Grading (PG) System

The Performance Grading (PG) system is commonly used to classify asphalt binders based on their performance characteristics. This includes factors like temperature susceptibility, aging properties, and climatic adaptability. For example, a binder with a PG grade of 64-22 indicates its high-temperature performance (64) and low-temperature performance.

asphalt pavement

Understanding these properties allows engineers and construction professionals to choose the appropriate asphalt binder for specific projects, taking into account factors such as local climate, traffic conditions, and pavement requirements. The goal is to create a durable and long-lasting asphalt pavement that can withstand the challenges posed by its environment.

PG systems

The PG grading system helps engineers and contractors select asphalt binders that match the specific environmental and traffic conditions of a given location, ensuring the longevity and performance of asphalt pavements.

asphalt binder is bitumen cement?

Asphalt binder, also known as bitumen or asphalt cement, is a black, sticky, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It is one of the primary components used in the production of asphalt concrete. Asphalt concrete, commonly known as asphalt or bituminous concrete, is widely used as a paving material for roads, driveways, airport runways, and various other applications.

How to produce?

Making asphalt binder involves the refining of crude oil to extract the heaviest fractions, which include bitumen or asphalt. This process typically takes place in a petroleum refinery. Here’s a simplified overview of how asphalt binder is produced:

Extraction of Crude Oil

Crude oil is extracted from underground reservoirs. It is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, and various fractions can be obtained through refining.


The crude oil is subjected to a distillation process in a refinery. This involves heating the crude oil and separating it into different fractions based on boiling points. The heaviest fraction, which includes bitumen or asphalt, is left behind after other components with lower boiling points are distilled off.

Vacuum Distillation

The heavier fractions, including bitumen, may undergo further processing through vacuum distillation. This process involves lowering the pressure to extract the heavier components that did not evaporate during regular distillation.

Blending and Modification

Depending on the desired properties of the asphalt binder, it may undergo blending with other bitumen sources or modification with additives. Additives can include polymers or rubber to enhance specific performance characteristics, such as elasticity or resistance to aging.

Quality Control

Rigorous quality control measures are applied to ensure that the asphalt binder meets industry specifications and standards. This may include testing for viscosity, penetration, ductility, and other properties.It’s important to note that the production of asphalt binder is typically carried out in specialized refineries equipped to handle heavy fractions. The resulting asphalt binder is then transported to asphalt mixing plants, where it is combined with aggregates (like crushed stone or sand) to produce asphalt concrete, commonly used in road construction.

Here are some key points about asphalt binder:


Asphalt binder is derived from crude oil through a refining process. It is the heaviest fraction obtained during the distillation of crude oil and is often referred to as bitumen in some regions.


Asphalt binder consists mainly of complex hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatic compounds. Its composition can vary based on the source of crude oil and the refining process.


Asphalt binder is characterized by its unique properties, including high viscosity, elasticity, and adhesiveness. These properties make it suitable for binding aggregates together in the production of asphalt concrete.

Use in Asphalt Concrete

In the production of asphalt concrete, aggregates such as crushed stone, gravel, or sand are mixed with asphalt binder to create a durable and flexible paving material. This mixture is heated and laid onto road surfaces, where it cools and hardens to form a sturdy road surface.

Performance Grade

Asphalt binders are categorized based on their performance characteristics, known as Performance Grade (PG). The PG system considers factors such as temperature susceptibility, aging properties, and climatic conditions to ensure the asphalt binder meets specific performance requirements.

Modifiers and Additives

Asphalt binders can be modified with polymers, crumb rubber, or other additives to enhance their performance in terms of elasticity, resistance to aging, and temperature stability.

Application Temperature

The application temperature of asphalt binder is a critical factor during the construction of asphalt pavements. It needs to be heated to a specific temperature for proper mixing with aggregates and then applied at a temperature that ensures proper compaction and bonding.

Asphalt binder plays a crucial role in the construction and maintenance of road infrastructure, providing a durable and flexible surface that can withstand various weather conditions and heavy traffic loads.

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